— Photo from the Albany Pine Bush Preserve Commission

“Reliably exquisite” is how Grace Barber, environmental educator for the Albany Pine Bush Preserve, describes ice crystals.

The Albany Pine Bush is one of the best remaining inland pitch pine-scrub oak barrens in the world. It is a truly unique place right here in the Capital District. Through this column, I hope to transport you for at least a short time to the Pine Bush to experience some of the seasonal happenings, active projects, and musings of this environmental educator.

I have thought of winter as a visual palate cleanser. It rinses the color from the landscape, priming my eyes to acutely perceive even the most modest greens, reds, and purples of spring. I suspect this attitude is more a reflection of the bias in my attention, however, than a truth about winter.

Most of us spend much less time outside during the colder months. This is certainly true of me, and it limits my ability to observe winter’s intricacies and its variety. Imagine only ever viewing the summer from behind a window or in hurried travels between indoor locations. How much would you miss?

As a child, I paid more attention to the shapes of snowflakes, made a game of walking on the surface of crusted snow without breaking through, and knew that beneath the snow were last year’s plants — lying in a state of decay — and that disturbing them could release a startling scent into the otherwise cold, clean-smelling air. These memories inform me that my experience of winter in more recent years has been cursory at best. I’m determined to slow down and look a little closer this year, and I hope you will join me.

I can’t think of a winter wonder more appealing and pervasive than ice crystals. They are ephemeral, found in the forms of snowflakes and frost, and are reliably exquisite. Just as there are names for different species of wildflowers, there are names for the different forms of frozen and crystallized water that blanket the landscape and our windows in late fall, winter, and early spring.

It was on a nighttime hike through the Pine Bush last fall, while standing in a frost pocket at the base of a large dune, when I first learned there were names given to different forms of frost. A University at Albany student in our hiking group asked me whether I’d ever seen hoarfrost in the frost pockets.

That was the first time I’d heard the term hoarfrost, but I’ve since learned it forms when water vapor from the air crystallizes on surfaces of plants, snow, and other objects when those surfaces are below freezing and colder than the air itself. This can result in gorgeous, large, hexagonal crystals of ice attached to all surfaces of the cold objects. Hoarfrost generally forms on clear nights, and it helps if the air is humid and still, which is where frost pockets come in.

If you’ve ever hiked around the blue trail from the Albany Pine Bush Discovery Center, you’ve walked through at least one frost pocket. Frost pockets are low-lying areas where cold air settles in the evening and can linger late into the morning hours. The chilling effect in frost pockets is so significant, that plants and insects grow more slowly there. Frost pockets also tend to be protected from the wind, making them a good place to look for impressive hoarfrost.

My curiosity about hoarfrost led me back to that same frost pocket, early on a cold November morning, looking for something I wasn’t sure I could identify. There was plenty of frost, both on top of the dunes and down in the swales, and I spent the better part of an hour looking and photographing it.

I found “frost flowers,” which look like sheets of curling white filaments projecting from the stems of plants where liquid water was pushed out to freeze in the cold air. I saw sticks covered in ice bristles and round white balls coating the surfaces of leaves like pilled sweaters.

And on a piece of monitoring equipment used for recording the temperature and humidity in the frost pocket, I found a blooming cluster of flat, translucent crystals. Was this hoarfrost? I took photographs of the crystal clusters using a macro lens to better appreciate their complexity and headed back to the Discovery Center, satisfied with having stopped to (figuratively) smell the winter roses.

If you are interested in joining me on this investigation of winter in the Pine Bush, I encourage you to follow the Albany Pine Bush Preserve on Facebook, follow our blog on (www.AlbanyPineBush.org), or, best of all, head out onto the trails to experience it yourself. The preserve offers miles of official hiking trails to explore, free of charge, right here in the Capital Region. Please visit our website for information on temporary trail closures or call the Discovery Center Front Desk at (518) 456-0655 ahead of your visit.


— Photo from the Albany Pine Bush Preserve commission

Thirteen kinds of goldenrod grow in the Pine Bush. Heralding the end of summer, they spread by seed and by root.

The Albany Pine Bush is one of the best remaining inland pitch-pine, scrub-oak barrens ecosystems in the world. It is a truly unique place right here in the Capital District. Through this column, I hope to transport you for at least a short time to the Pine Bush to experience some of the seasonal happenings, active projects, and musings of this environmental educator.

It is officially late summer. Rasping katydids and chirping crickets are audible reminders that the end of the summer season is drawing near. Although fall does not officially begin until the autumn equinox on Sept. 22, much of nature has already started preparing for the coming winter.

Woodchucks have been feasting on fruits and leaves, adding to their fat reserves. Birds are gathering in groups in preparation for migration; some have already begun their southward journey. Acorns are ripening and seeds are abundant as plants complete another cycle of life.

While the approaching fall can make some of us wistful for a return to early summer, there is much to enjoy about late summer.

One of the most enjoyable displays this season has to offer is that of late summer wildflowers. These late bloomers wait until the final weeks of the summer season to display their brilliant blossoms.  Many bloom through early autumn, even after the first frost.

Goldenrods are an easily recognizable group of plants that are in bloom right now.  Frequently seen along roadsides and in field and forest alike, these tall sturdy wildflowers are a common inhabitant of the Pine Bush.

Goldenrods are named for the golden yellow hue of their tiny brilliant blossoms, arranged in clusters of varying shapes and sizes. If you look closely you may notice some of the differences among the species: leaf shape, texture, and arrangement of blossoms are great places to start.

Goldenrods belong to the genus Solidago; 32 different kinds of goldenrod have been identified in New York State, 13 of which grow in the Albany Pine Bush. Canada goldenrod, rough goldenrod, and white goldenrod (as its name suggests, this goldenrod has white blossoms) are just a few of the goldenrod species that are found here. Goldenrods spread by seed and by root and can quickly colonize fields and gardens, revealing their identity in late summer with their sunny golden flowers.

Asters are another familiar group of late-blooming wildflowers that come in an even more impressive diversity. The name “aster” originates from the Greek word for star, which describes the star-like flower head of asters.

Asters are actually related to goldenrods and are grouped together in the same family, Asteraceae. In the Albany Pine Bush, 22 species of aster have been identified including stiff-leaf aster and New England aster. Their blossoms range from a deep vibrant purple to brilliant white with yellow to orange centers.

Taking a closer look (with the aid of a magnifying lens), you can see what may have first appeared to be one singular flower is actually an arrangement of many tiny flowers called disc flowers (clustered in the center) and ray flowers (distributed around the edges, each possessing one petal).

Asters are a popular fall landscaping plant for their beautiful shape and color. Keep your eyes open for them at many of the local nurseries and grocery stores this fall. Or, come visit the Albany Pine Bush Preserve and explore the trails or grounds of the Discovery Center to experience asters in bloom.

Perhaps the best show of all is the diversity of animal life that comes to visit fall blooms. Butterflies, bees, wasps, beetles, flies, spiders, and more visit fall wildflowers in search of a meal or shelter.

Nectar attracts pollinators that return the gift of food with the service of pollination, critical for seed development. The heavy pollen of goldenrod is distributed in this way, unlike the allergy-inducing ragweed flower whose pollen is spread by the wind.

Late summer flowers provide vital sources of nectar and pollen to insects as the growing season comes to a close. The seeds that grow following pollination feed both resident and migrating birds as well as small mammals. Seeds also ensure the start of the next generation of fall wildflowers in the coming spring.

Before the chilly winds of autumn blow, take a moment to savor the last hurrah of summer and the brilliant display of life this season brings.


If you want more information about the Albany Pine Bush Preserve or the Discovery Center go to our website AlbanyPineBush.org, call (518) 456-0655, or visit the Discovery Center at 195 New Karner Road in Albany.


The Albany Pine Bush is one of the best remaining inland pitch-pine scrub oak barrens in the world. It is a truly unique place right here in the Capital District.

The Albany Pine Bush is one of the best remaining inland pitch-pine scrub oak barrens in the world. It is a truly unique place right here in the Capital District.

Have you ever heard of the Albany Pine Bush Preserve? Better yet, have you ever visited it? Walked on the trails? Attended an educational program?